The main objectives of this study are to review of the major categories of fresh and processed meat products that are candidates for heterocyclic amine (HCA) formation and develop a matrix of levels of HCA among the major consumed meat categories (based on data in the published literature); and to conduct an exposure assessment based on known dietary consumption patterns. The assessment was done in three parts: 1) a literature review and HCA data compilation, 2) a consumer behavior/preference survey, and 3) a dietary exposure assessment. Published data on HCA formation based on different methods of cooking/processing were reviewed and compiled. An internet survey was conducted to ascertain the prevalence of various meat cooking methods that are preferred among US meat consumers. Data from the literature survey and consumer survey were then combined with food consumption data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 (NHANES 03-06) to derive estimates of exposure to HCAs from meat consumption, including exposure estimates for PhIP, MeIQx, DiMeIQx, and B[a]P. The existing data gaps associated with the available HCA level data present a significant source of uncertainty in the exposure estimates. If it is possible in the future to fill the HCA data gaps, then it would be recommended to re-estimate the HCA exposure based on these improved data. In contrast, meat intake estimates based on preferred method of cooking and degree of doneness were based on consumer surveys, hence are robust and the most reliable component of the exposure assessment.