The lack of genome sequence information largely limited our ability to generate accurate molecular diagnostics and to identify vaccine candidate for porcine rotaviruses, especially for group B and C strains. This project aimed to use more advanced sequencing technology to obtain full genome sequences of contemporary porcine rotavirus strains. Our data clearly illustrated the shift of porcine rotavirus from predominant group A (37%) to the current more prevalent group C (59%) strains. Within group A strains, the most important immunogenic VP7 protein has also shifted from predominant G5 and G11 some 20 years ago to the current G9 (46%) and G4 (44%) genotypes. Sequence information on VP4 of both group B and group C strains revealed rather divergent sub-clusters by phylogenetic analysis. These observations indicated that there are needs for the development of molecular diagnostics to include all three major groups, especially for group C, and G4 and G9 group A porcine rotaviruses as they become the predominant group or genotypes in the swine production systems. Our data also suggest that new vaccine candidate selection should consider group C, and G4 and G9 group A strains, and new vaccines should protect pigs against the infections from the new group or genotypes of porcine rotaviruses. For more information, contact Dr. Dick Hesse: [email protected]; or Dr. Jianfa Bai: [email protected].

We appreciate the following professionals’ participation in the project, and their help in collecting samples: Drs. Lisa Tokach, Megan Potter, & Steve Henry, Abilene Animal Hospital, Kansas; Dr. Jeffrey Demint, Bern-Sabetha Veterinary Clinic, Bern, Kansas; Drs. Aaron Lower, Dyneah Classen, Lucas Funk, and Joe Conner, Carthage Veterinary Clinic, Carthage, Illinois; Drs. Chris Rademacher & Ed Kluber, Murphy Brown, Ames, Iowa; Dr. Ben Hause, Newport Laboratory, Worthington, Minnesota, and Drs. Mark Engle & Larry Coleman, PIC North America, Hendersonville, Tennessee.